Po block b schizophrenia

Several other connections play important roles in hippocampal function. [16] Beyond the output to the EC, additional output pathways go to other cortical areas including the prefrontal cortex . A major output goes via the fornix to the lateral septal area and to the mammillary body of the hypothalamus (which the fornix interconnects with the hippocampus). [15] The hippocampus receives modulatory input from the serotonin , norepinephrine , and dopamine systems, and from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus to field CA1. A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, which sends cholinergic , and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) stimulating fibers (GABAergic fibers) to all parts of the hippocampus. The inputs from the medial septal nucleus play a key role in controlling the physiological state of the hippocampus; destruction of this nucleus abolishes the hippocampal theta rhythm and severely impairs certain types of memory. [22]

Dizocilpine may be effective as a recreational drug. Little is known in this context about its effects, dosage, and risks. The high potency of dizocilpine makes its dosage more difficult to accurately control when compared to other similar drugs. As a result, the chances of overdosing are high. Users tend to report that the experience is not as enjoyable as other dissociative drugs, and it is often accompanied by strong auditory hallucinations. Also, dizocilpine is much longer-lasting than similar dissociative drugs such as ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP), and causes far worse amnesia and residual deficits in thinking, which have hindered its acceptance as a recreational drug. [ citation needed ] Several animal studies have demonstrated the addictive potential of dizocilpine. Rats learned to lever-press in order to obtain injections of dizocilpine into the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex, however, when given a dopamine antagonist at the same time, the lever-pressing was not altered, which shows that the rewarding effect of dizocilpine is not dependent on dopamine. [34] Intraperitoneal administration of dizocilpine also produced an enhancement in self-stimulation responding. [35] Rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer cocaine or phencyclidine, then were offered dizocilpine instead. None of the four monkeys who were used to cocaine chose to self-administer dizocilpine but three out of the four monkeys who had been using phencyclidine self-administered dizocilpine, suggesting again that dizocilpine has potential as a recreational drug for those seeking a dissociative anaesthetic type of experience. [36] It was found that dizocilpine administration elicited conditioned place preference in animals, again demonstrating its reinforcing properties. [37] [38]

Po block b schizophrenia

po block b schizophrenia