Estradiol's efficacy seems to vary widely with the person and the particular vehicle: I was on transdermal patches for two years ( , 2 patches changed twice weekly – considered a "high" dose of 17-beta estradiol), and my levels mostly stayed around 100 pg/mL, and I needed 100mg spironolactone daily to keep my testosterone down. When I switched to injections of Estradiol Valerate, as I was "titrating up" my testosterone was unmeasurably low at the same E2 level my patches were delivering. (I had decided to drop spiro at the same time due to it's side effects: for me it seemed to be fogging my brain and inducing suicidal ideation.) Increasing the dosage had the effect of adding a cup-size to my breasts after about two months of injections, after two years of HRT, at age 53 and with b-cup breasts already. This story is not unusual in the community, and it led me to try this form of HRT.
Drugs can be added and removed from this list by WADA annually, although not all of the banned substances are explicitly named. Caroline Hatton, PhD , a sports anti-doping science consultant, told in a Mar. 12, 2010 email that "A key concept in prohibited lists is that they avoid being finite. Instead of listing all banned drugs one by one, they list entire drug classes and name drugs merely as examples. This is to keep users who took designer drugs from claiming that they didn't break the rules because the drugs they took weren't listed."
Valproic acid was first synthesized in 1882 by Beverly S. Burton as an analogue of valeric acid , found naturally in valerian .  Valproic acid is a carboxylic acid , a clear liquid at room temperature. For many decades, its only use was in laboratories as a "metabolically inert" solvent for organic compounds. In 1962, the French researcher Pierre Eymard serendipitously discovered the anticonvulsant properties of valproic acid while using it as a vehicle for a number of other compounds that were being screened for antiseizure activity. He found it prevented pentylenetetrazol -induced convulsions in laboratory rats .  It was approved as an antiepileptic drug in 1967 in France and has become the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug worldwide.  Valproic acid has also been used for migraine prophylaxis and bipolar disorder.